• Santushti Raj Thapar

Paper is an attempt to how Radicalization in global era poses a serious challenge to internal security. Today the phenomena of radicalization develop rapidly, with their radical forms manifested locally as well as globally and strained a philosophy ‘’Vasudhaiv Kutumbkam.’’ My research deals with current academic debate on three different forms of radicalization, including Islamist radicalization; right wing and left wing, all together create biggest threat to international security entirely more than internal security. It will highlight the multifaceted challenges of radicalization facing the international community and analyze the multilayered and different cooperative approaches need of de-radicalization and its accompanying strategies to tackle the threat to humanity. As radicalization continues to expand its presence everywhere and claims responsibility for an increased number of extreme violence, the need for a counter extremism strategy that includes significant internal and international cooperation, coupled with confidence-building tools, has become more crucial to maintain peace. The measures to be applicable must also include sturdy stabilization and combine diplomatic, security, political and information sharing activities. Although strong reasons of radicalization are suggested by analyst, what we know are: typical and orthodoxy mind set for religion, hunger for ultimate power, chauvinism and dissatisfaction from political and social order. Moreover, in the process of intensifying global interconnectedness where world believe in integration, homogenization and localization but my research will also focus on its other face which is a contradictory process involving fragmentation, diversification and in terrorism escalation. This assessment will clarify the understanding of radicalization power is, itself, based on distortions as well as deliberate falsification where radicalization has consistently exaggerated both its excesses and its victories. This paper reveals the different facets of radicalization which pose a danger to entire humanity, fraternity of the earth and will discuss how it creates a threat to internal security of every nation. Research will focus on determining reasons behind the youth adopting radical beliefs, common threads among cases of radicalization and influence of community interventions. In this paper I had tried to: introduce the facts and present the problem of radicalization, narrate reasons of radicalization, quote number of forms of radicalization, elucidate approaches of de-radicalization and counter radicalization.


Radicalization is a stigma on constructed philosophy ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ which means ‘’the world is one family’’. Extremist grievances are rooted in the failures of political or socio-economic governance. Religion simply provides the ultimate justification that enervates a boldness of action otherwise missing. These groups and classical terrorist claim to be anti-modern and backward-looking explicitly. They seek political power-generally control of the state, see themselves as opposed to modernity, they put emphasis on the need to regenerate and unify a corrupt society, they believe they are part of a great war against an ‘other’. Strong stratification of society, unreasonable demographic policy, unemployment, corruption and other social evils form the breeding ground for extremism. After all, systematic violation of the right of ethnic and religious minorities, discrimination and disregard of their legitimate demands lead constantly to tension, radicalization and conflict escalation.

They object to the doubt and questioning that characterizes modern society, insisting that sacred knowledge is the superior form of knowledge, and that there is a ‘correct’ interpretation of events given by God which cannot be contradicted by human reason. Lt. Gen. J.S. Sandhu had asked: ‘’the local terrorist must realize that it is easy to call yourself a Mujahid. But are you a Mujahid or are you just a proxy for Pakistan?’’ These groups are at once traditional and anti-traditional. They insist on the reinvention of tradition, on reintroducing past rituals and practices even if these ‘tradition’ are quite at odds with the customs of everyday life. In effect these groups invent a past, ignoring more recent history or whatever does not fit their preconception.

India has a long tradition of radical Islamism and is the source of some of the most influential ideologies that currently dominate both regional terrorism in South Asia and global jihad. For instance, the Darul Uloom Deoband, a religious seminary located in western Uttar Pradesh in India since 1867, has been widely viewed as the ideological fountainhead of the Taliban in Afghanistan, as well as Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, Harkat-ul-Jihad Islami, and Jaish-e-Muhammad-Pakistan-based terrorist formations operating against India. Within India, the Jamaat ideology has also influenced the terrorist Hizb-ul-Mujahideen, the students’ Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) and Indian Mujahideen. The Hizb-ul-Mujahideen, however, remains intimately connected with the Jamaat-e-Islami in Jammu and Kashmir. Moreover there are different factions and number of other radical groups also like: Wahabbi, Salafis, Ahle-Hadith, and Deobandis but primarily it must be clear that all are simply different names. In spirirt and the messages they propagate, they are essentially the same. The differences are minor and could be of degrees but the trajectory is same. Their main objection to the creation of Pakistan was not on nationalistic grounds but, rather on religious grounds. They argued that in undivided India, Deobandis will have the opportunities to make entire country Dar-ul-Islam where carving a small Pakistan will restrict their activities to a small geographical area, depriving them of the major chunk of the landmass and population base for their missionary activities.

As Hussain Haqqani, a noted Pakistani academician and political activist concede: ‘’India’s secular democratic constitution empowers the country’s Muslims more than their co religionist Muslim majority states. Indian Muslims are able to elect and replace their rulers, in addition to influencing public policy. As a minority, however, Indian Muslims cannot benefit from democracy without coalition building. This need to establish broad based democratic conditions has acted as a check on radical and extremist ideologies, and as such, most orthodox and conservative Muslim groups use their political power to operate within the democratic context.’’

Following the path, ‘’Home grown terrorism’’ phenomenon is also upswing throughout the Europe and USA and India is also trapped by this. Bangalore and New Delhi blast, Mumbai bomb blast 1993 and 2006, Jaipur 2008 were all conducted by ‘home grown terrorist’. Most home-grown jihadist operatives-both underground and overground-such as Al-Ummah, Indian Mujahideen and SIMI have Southern link. While the ideologues of the Indian Mujahideen are from South India, Yasin Bhatkal, Riyaz Bhatkal all come from Bhatkal, a coastal town in Karnatka of South India. No wonder then, radical Islamist outfits like the PFI also originated in southern part. However, the recent arrest of six persons in Kerela for planning terrorist strikes under the banner of ISIS reveals that India is now more at risk of lone wolf style terrorist attack than before.

On the other hand It is worthy of note that there was also increasing in activity of the Hindu extremist organizations, major target of Hindu extremists is the Muslim community, which is haunted by the fear of recurrent communal riots that have taken the lives of thousands of Muslims and Hindus since Indian independence. During the outbreak of violence in Gujrat in February 2002, many of the victims were burned alive or dismembered while police and BJP state government authorities either stood by or joined in. the mobs had with them list of homes and businesses owned by Muslim, lists that they could have acquired only from government sources. The process of forming a Hindu rule in the country has begun with Gujrat, and VHP will take the Gujrat experiment to every nook and corner of the country. (Paul Marshall)

Contemporarily, Raghvendra Vikram Singh, a senior Uttar Pradesh bureaucrat posted a post on face book on radicalization, ’’Ajab rivaz ban gaya hai, Muslim mohollo me jabardasti julus le jao aur Pakistan murdabad ke naare lagao. Kyun bhai, ve Pakistani hain kya? (A strange custom has taken hold, take a procession by force into a Muslim neighborhood and shout anti-Pakistan slogans. Why, are they Pakistani?” but later he was felt intimidated by absurd remarks and finally he took down that post. His statement was written on Kasganj disruption made by Hindu youth on Republic day celebration in a Muslim neighborhood. On the Singh’ face book post-the deputy chief minister said the officer was talking like a politician. These events are common trend now a days and youths favorite slogan is ‘’Is desh mein rehna hai to Vande Matram bolna hai’’ (if you are willing staying in this country, you have to say vande matram) and ‘’Bharat mata ki jai’’ (India is Great) and also ‘’hindu, hindi, hindustan. Katve bhagao Pakistan (hindu, hindi, hindustan). Cut guys (derogatory remark for Muslim) run to Pakistan). Every day brings a new low and reveals a growing willingness to fan new flames. Listen to this 2014 election video, which gained new life in Kasganj and now tops 4.4 million views.’’ Har ghar pe bhagwa chayega(evryhouse will fly the saffron flags),’’ right wing says.

Other major target of hindu extremism is anti-Christian acts. The relation between Hindu and Christians worsened heavily in 1999, when BJP became leader of the coalition government.an example of bajrang Dal is burning alive of Graham staines, Autralian Christian missionary, and two his children in Orissa in January 1999.Later, in August 2008, following pogroms of local Christians more than 80 people were killed, 50 thousand Christians became refugee. Worthy of notice that other Hindu organization Vishwa Hindu Parishad adopted at its congree in 1988 a resolution of the necessity of return to Russia and Russians to ‘’the bosom of the native faith’’, that is to Hinduism. Multiple acts of violence against Christians and Muslims committed by extremists have remained unpunished mainly due to the connivance of authorities, because Bajrang Dal is an active ally of the BJP ruling party in many states of India. An example is activity of Bal Thackerey, odious founder and leader of the extremist organization Shiv Sena (Shiva’s Army). Through its own newspaper, he repeatedly inspired attacks on Muslim and incited his followers to violence. (Vadim Atnashev, Ph.D, Assitant Professor at the International and Humanitarian Law Department, North-West Institute of Management, the presedential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, St-Petersburg, Russia.)

Moreover, Hemant Karkare, former chief of the state Anti-Terrorism Squad, in spite of strong political pressure, as a result of his investigation revealed secret ties between Indian militaries and Hindu terrorist groups. Karkare detected that right-wing Hindu groups were involved in bombings at Malegaon, State of Maharashtra (September 2006 and September 2008), and of the Samjhauta Express (February 2007). The terrorist acts had been organized so that suspicion lighted on Muslims. Karkare also revealed the complicity of officers from the Indian military intelligence in terrorist acts, commitment of which was imputed to Muslim. As is the case with Islamic extremism, there is no policy which seeks to combat saffron extremism comprehensively and conclusively. To make matters worse, the existence of saffron terrorism has been denied vehemently by successive government. As noted Indian academician and political scientist – Pratap Bhanu Mehta accepts in an editorial:

‘’our response to this challenge has been, at best, an embarrassed denial. In the process we have put on display our double standards. We could not even get ourselves to admit that anyone claiming the appellation Hindu could be terrorists. This is more a symptom of our prejudice than a fact.’’

There are also major violent trends in Hindu extremism. In India, this violence is supported by Hindu extremists and their allies in the Indian government, which is currently led by the Bhartiya Janta Party. Sangh parivar organizations include the Bajrang Dal and the Vishwa Hindu Parishad, which engage in propaganda, virulent hate campaigns, and sometimes violence against religious minorities. The Bhartiya Janta party (BJP), which has since 1998 formed the national government of India at the head of a coalition of centrist parties, is tied to the RSS, VHP and Bajrang Dal, and functions as the Sangh Parivar’s political wing. The RSS is now a major paramilitary organization with millions of members.

As eight states go the polls this year, and India prepares for general elections in 2019, that rhetoric is being amped up. The goal is clear: to build a Hindu vote bank larger than the 31% of voters who chose Narender Modi, the Bhartiya Janta party and their allies in 2014. The appeasement of Hindus, using lies and hatred to build a Hindu vote bank, is imperiling India. (Samar Halarnkar). In the present climate of hostility, a vicious cycle is likely, as there are groups that would happily seize upon the insidious presence of the IS in India to paint the entire Muslim community with the broad brush of negative propaganda or worse. If religious extremism continues to grow, it will, as we have learned elsewhere, drag India’s democracy, economy, and foreign policy down with it. In the face of such a threat, we cannot afford to be silent.

Reasons of Radicalization

Problem of radicalization lie in the cultural, political, ideological, religious and social spheres of the Indian society. On the other hand it is on this account that the post-independence policy makers of the country have failed at curbing radicalization. When these generations feel rejected by the host society despite integration attempts, it creates feelings of bitterness, resentment, and insecurity as to which group they identify more with. In such scenario, any discriminating policy within the host society can serve as a catalyst for radicalization. Overwhelmingly, Some particular nationalist and religious groups also arise as disillusion with the secular ideologies as well as a reaction to the insecurities generated by globalization and also at the same time, they make use of the opportunities created by globalization – the new media, especially social media (internet), and increased opportunities for funding from the diasporas as well as transnational criminal groups. The most apparent of these are the anxieties of the largest minority community. Christopher Jefferlot in his article,’’ The Saudi Connection’’, informs that Kerela is the state where Salafis are getting a strong foothold. The southern states like kerela, Karnatka, and cities like Hydrabad where Muslims are comparatively better off politically, educationally and economically have supplied the majority of ISIS recruits from India. It is not just a mere coincidence but the result of the long history of the connections of the above-mentioned places with Arab world because of the huge Indian Muslim diaspora working in the gulf is from these southern states. Some scholars place the blame solely on the inaction of the government machinery in dealing with atrocities committed by the majority against the minorities.

Although some might see radicalization in terms of causation rather than as process cite the push for societal change or poor governance as triggers. Once the basics of communal are accepted, it is argued, the ideology takes over a person slowly, transforming him first from a nationalist to a communal nationalist and finally a liberal communalist. India was threatened by an Afghan-origin jihadist, namely Sultan Zabul al-Hindi, an affiliate to the Al Queda, who proclaimed: ‘’The only solution for you (India) is rule of Sharia, which Allah has commanded.’’ Hadith called ‘India is a fitna (evil)’.

Sometimes radicalization can be the identity crisis faced Muslims in India, mainly due to marginalization. Deplorably for Kashmir, militants have attached religious sanctity to their terrorist designs in the valley for quite a few years. What fuels the fire to their war cry is the concocted notion of Ghazwa-tul-Hind (Islamic expedition against India), which is based on fictitious hadiths (sayings attributed to Prophet Muhammad pbuh). The most widespread among these hadith texts is the one narrated by Abu Huraira(r.a). He reported: ‘’the messenger of Allah promised us the conquest of India. If I was to come across that event, I will spend my soul and wealth. If I am killed then I am among the best of martyrs. And if I return then I am Abu Huraira (RA) who has been freed from the fire of hell. They believe that religions and ethnicities can somehow be kept within or be excluded from bordered territory.

Symbolic and strategic forms of Radicalization

What will be the nature and extent of threats mentioned the below tendencies, if present, pose to India?

ISLAM: In South India, there are a host of terror organizations. It is no secret that the founding fathers of the Indian Mujahideen (IM) are from South India. IM has drawn its recruits from urban and educated backgrounds. South Asian Islam, despite the numerous incidents communal violence in the history, has a unique and distinct nature that has evolved over centuries of interaction with other faiths in a multicultural society of India. The tolerant and liberal Islam of South Asia has so far prevented any major rise of violent extremism of India. Moreover, threat on Kashmir issue posed by cross border terrorism emanating from Pakistan. The December 2001 attack on Indian Parliament and the 26/11 Mumbai attacks by Lashkar-e-Taiba as well as the recent attacks on military bases on Pathankot and Uri, stand out prominently as examples of the reach of terrorists from across the border. Systematic rape, for example, was a deliberate weapon of war with the aim of making women, feel ashamed and defiled so that they would not want to return their house.

SAFFRONISATION: Historically communal polarization has been a strategy of Hindu Right-wing. There is a transparent history of mob lynching and violence in India. For example ‘’Pink revolution’’ was an important strategy during the campaign for the 2014 general election. Muslims in India are branded as ‘anti nationals’ on the other hand pro Muslim policy on part of the government is labeled as ‘appeasement’. Despite all, Sleepy and laid-back towns like Udaipur have witnessed huge protest and agitation in the favor of Rohingyas, not out of rational and enlightened concerns of internationalism but out of the feeling of being an inalienable part of Ummah i.e. global Islamic brotherhood.

‘’Killing people in the name of gau bhakti’’

There have been 26 cases of Cow vigilantism in India in 118 days 2017; most in 8 years since 55 years old Pehlu khan died after a mob attack on April 1, 2017, according to an IndiaSpend database that records such violence in India. The data shows that Muslims were the target of 51 percent (36 of 70) cases of violence centered on bovine issues over nearly eight years (2010 to 2017) and comprised 86 percent (24 of 28) killed in 70 incidents. Cases in Uttrakhand increased at the greatest rate nationwide, 450%, from four in 2014 to 22 in 2016. Source: Lok Sabha. One report indicate that 2,097 such murders were committed between 2000 and 2012 in at least 12 states. The second type pertains to the historical issue of caste violence against Dalits. Caste atrocities often include lynching but are generally under-reported. There was a case of cow slaughter in 2002, where five Dalits from Haryana were lynched by a frenzied mob. (for instance Junaid lynching case Faridabad, Haryana had triggered a nationwide outrage. He was called ‘’beef eater’’ by the accused, 2013 Mujjafarnagar riots, Gujrat riots 2002 after the Godhra incident , 131 Muslims were charged under the POTA while the few rioters who were arrested in the progroms that followed were charged under the IPC. This almost seems to be conformity with the belief that special laws such as POTA and MCOCA are for Muslims extremists while the Indian Penal Code is for Hindu extremists., 1980 Moradabad riots, 1984 anti-sikh riots, 1989 Bhagalpur violence, 2014 Saharanpur riots, Bombay Riots, and Kokrajhar cases). Other three events also have contributed the growth of militancy: the demolition of Babri Masjid inayodhya in 1992, therafter violence in Mumbai, anti muslim massacre in Gujrat in 2002. These incidents amounted terrorism in the Indian Muslim Youth. Strikingly, the report by IndiaSpend reveals that a blatant 97 percent of all attacks centred on bovine issues between 2010 and 2017 were reported in the last three years. When a glaring 61 of a total of 63 such cases are registered after the creation of cow protection squads and beef trade restrictions, it definitely signals that an entirely new trend of mob violence in India, has gained ground under the current governing dispensation (this includes the fact that a majority of the cases have been reported in BJP-governed state).Sandipan Bakshi and Aravindham Nagarjan

‘’We believe cow is our mother, she is tied to people’s emotions. But it must be understood that there are laws to protect cows and there is no option to break it.’’ The Prime Minister tweeted on 16 July, 2017, increased 41 percent over three years to 2016, rising from 336 to 475. Uttar Pradesh India’s most (202) cases, registering a 346 percent increase, from 26 in 2014 to 116 in 2016. Uttar Pradesh was followed by Kerela (151), karnatka (114), Telangna (104), and Maharashtra (103), among the top five states, over three years. Firstpost. July 29, 2017 By IndiaSpend. Such events immediately arises question: is this new form of lynching is justified? Is it not a symptom of incomplete democratic project?

Saffron extremism is on culmination now days in reign of BJP: on 9th February 2016 JNU (Jawahar lal Nehru University) organized an event questioning the manner of execution of Afzal Guru, a convict in the Parliament House attack in December 2001. Members of Akhil Bhartiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP), a student wing of the Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS), protesting the organization of the event, clashed with the organizers and the crowd after alleged Pro Pakistan and Anti-Indian sloganeering. A case of sedition was registered at the police station and followed took the whole country by storm; exposing a seven decade old fault line which was supposedly bridged after independence by the country’s the then leadership.

The police arrested the JNU students Union functionaries and the organizers of the event under section 124A of the Indian Penal Code. With cultural nationalist appropriating the term ‘nationalist’ for themselves; anyone questioning the arrests and the charge of sedition was termed anti national. Indeed, even the halls of justice were not spared when on 14th February 2016, whilst the JNUSU President was appearing before the court for trial, and a mob dressed in lawyer’s inclemently thrashed him and anyone who supported him.

Sharma OP, a sitting MLA of the ruling party who participated in the violence was quoted as saying:

‘’The problem of this country at present is that terrorism and being anti-national are considered being progressive. And JNU is promoting this kind of ideology and producing anti nationals. JNU should be sealed.’’

In line with trend, in June 2016 the then Minister of state in the Ministry of Human Resources Development – Katheria RS was quoted at an event saying – “Saffronization in education will happen, wheather is good for the country will be done, whether it is saffronization or sanghwaad.’’ When such statements made by those in power and are met with thunderous applauds, mass radicalization of the cadres and storm troopers by the Sangh and it’s the splinter organizations can hardly be questioned.

NAXALISM: Naxalism is today considered by the all political pundits as the single greatest threat to the security and stability of India. Naxalbari and ideology of Naxalism in West Bengal quickly became a fully-fledged conflict with the Indian state. More recently, on march 30th 2016, seven personal of CRPF were killed in a landmine explosion in the same district of Dantewada where the April 2006 attack took place. In April 2016, three villagers were abducted and beaten to death by Naxals in two separate incidents in Bastar, Chattisgarh after a public trial in a Kangaroo court. Government should address the concern of the tribal regarding land rights, minimum wages, common property resources and housing, rights over use of forest, the threats to their dignity, political marginalization etc.

In May 2006, the planning commission appointed an expert committee to study issue and address the causes of ‘unrest, discontent and extremism. ’As the report of expert committee points out in direct words: ‘’the failure to provide infrastructure and services as per national norms is one of the many discriminatory manifestations of Governance here. These disparities result in non-available provided services.’’

Role of social Media and Funding

As connections to the social media, internet burgeoned from 500 million in 2001 to 2.3 billion by the end of 2011 with 45 percent constituting users below the age of 25, radical and extremist websites embraced technology and embedded the myriad multimedia options available-audio, video, RSS feed subscriptions, and even cartoons and games with flash animation for children. Use of media and method of funding is a new global terrorism in organization. Moreover many of these radical groups are part of a family of organizations. Nationalist and religious groups often organize what might be described as parallel societies, a sophisticated organizational infrastructure with political, military, educational, welfare and publishing components. A report published by RAND Corporation in 2013 found that the internet created more opportunities for people to become radicalized. The internet has been utilized effectively both by radicals as well as intelligence agencies keeping tabs on viewers and proponents of such radical content. All of these groups make use of the ‘new media’ – television, internet, video cassettes. Many groups have their own TV or radio channels. The website of Indonesia’s Front Pembela Islam once boasted availability on the platforms of Black Berry, iphone, ipad, and Android. Extremist groups provoke thought among young targets, particularly those vulnerable to extremist messaging; through the same new media channels terrorists’ use – YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter – on how these targeted youth view faith, identity and their place in society. India also benefits from the new satellite channel, Star TV. Addressing the 4th ASEAN Defense Minister meeting in the capital of the Philippines, Manila, Ms Sitharaman said,’’ Terrorism anywhere is a threat everywhere’’. She said,’’ new developments in social media and cyberspace have expanded the threat, as these are exploited by terrorist to develop less visible but lethal ways and means of manipulating minds of the people.’’

On the matter of funding many groups, as in the past, levy ‘taxes’ on their supporters, especially those abroad. Many people in the Diasporas support charitable organizations. Whether knowingly or not, funds to extremist groups are often channeled through religious NGOs, which is why Islamic NGOs were one of the first targets of the FBI after 11 September in their efforts to crack down on terrorism. According to FBI, both banks and Islamic charities are source of funding. Islamic NGOs like the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development (HLF), Texas based charity, the International Islamic Relief Fund(IIRO). Other sources are banks like al-Taqwa and Bakarat that manage hawala transfers (remittances and non-recorded transfers). Al-Qaida has arranged of funding sources. Bin Laden himself is personally is personally very wealthy. The general perception among the intellectuals and intelligence community is that the real threat lies in the challenge from Wahabbi radicalization financed and propped by the Saudi money. Saudis are pumping money to promote Wahabism in India. An intelligence bureau (IB) report says that the years 2011 to 2013 alone saw a record number of 25000 Wahabis coming to India and conducting seminars in various parts of the country. They brought in Rs. 1700 crores and utilizes it to propagate the Wahabi style of islam. In Kerela, they had taken the control of 75 mosques. According to journalist Vicky Nanjappa’s report dated August 1, 2014, there are 1.8 million wahabi followers are in India. Nanjappa wrote, quoting and IB report about Saudi funding those rs. 8 billion was earmarked for setting up four Wahabi universities, Rs. 4 billion for building 40 mosques, Rs. 3 billion for Madrasas and a billion for the upkeep of existing mosques.

Foreign Secretary S Jaishankar made the remark during a high level meeting at the UN on ‘preventing terrorist Use of Internet’ hosted by UK and Italy in September, 2017. ‘’Internet backbone, critical internet resources and data centers should be dispersed and redundant to mitigate impact of major terror attacks,’’. He added, ‘’ where the internet is concerned, we all recognize how effective a tool it is for terrorism. Its utility for radicalization, indoctrination, recruitment and financing is by now well-proven.in such situation we cannot be passive.

Strategy of De – Radicalization, Counter-Radicalization and Anti-Radicalization

De-radicalization is defined as the process of changing an individual belief system, rejecting the extremist ideology, and embracing mainstream values. On the other hand, counter radicalization refers to proactive initiatives that are targeted towards communities to reduce potential risk of radicalization reactive and describes interventions that address a specific individual to reverse the radicalization.

De-Radicalization - The Saudi government adopted ‘war on ideas’ against violent extremism. They took initiative of religious re-education and counseling by clerics inside the prison. They defined this de-radicalization as ‘softer de-radicalization’ and viewed it post 9/11. On the similar theme Maharashtra govt. also held such campaigns in February 2016 but in comparison to the Saudi strategy it was too absent minded attempt and feeble. De-radicalization program should be affective, pragmatic, and ideological commitment to the group. For good results Bajpai and Kaushik suggest three components; first is the identification religious inaccuracy, secondly vocational training of the terrorist to financially supports himself upon release and lastly community re-integration. Further creation of counseling and rehabilitation centers providing with requisite manpower such a noted psychologist, criminologist, counselors, prominent religious leaders etc., law enabling courts for radicals rehabilitations.

Moreover, Building a support structure on the lines of the German EXIT program is also worth understanding where an individual who voluntarily wants to leave the extremist group is guided towards development of new perspective outside the right wing. Arranging contacts, providing practical aid and support, answering questions regarding personal safety and social problems as practiced by the EXIT program would also encourage such individuals.

To have any hope of success in the context of anti-radicalization, strategies of the government must foster a sense of physical security, democratic space and cultural sensitivity towards traditions of minority communities while adopting a no-nonsense, intelligence-based crackdown on the shadowy menace of the IS. As is the case with Islamic education, the question of saffron in schools needs to be separated from the spheres of vote bank politics and religion. To develop course curriculums which uphold the constitutional values and promote peace, tolerance, humanism, scientific temper, rationality without interpreting history through the lens of any religious grouping is the need of the hour.


India is not a stranger to the various forms of insurgencies, communalism and terrorism perpetrated by radicalized individuals. Problem we face today are mutated versions of issues which have festered, unchecked and unresolved, for decades. It is high time India acted to address the challenge of radicalization. Anger in Muslim radicals is somehow is not only social and economic factors. Their anger is due to their perception that the Indian criminal justice system is anti-Muslim. When they talk of the Indian criminal justice system, they essentially mean the police and the judiciary.

MJ Akbar, Minister of external affairs delivering his key note in an International seminar organized by NSG. He said,’’ Complacency, hypocrisy, or duplicity towards the godfathers of terrorism is an invitation to disaster’’. He added, ’’we have therefore ascertained that our fight against terrorism should not only seek to eliminate terrorist and disrupt their organizations and their networks but should also identify and strong measures against states who encourage, support and finance terrorism and provide sanctuary to terrorists and terror groups and falsely extol their virtues. There should be no glorification of terrorists as martyrs.’’ Minister was disappointed over the UN not coining a definition on what exactly terrorism means.

Recently Prime Minister Narender Modi on a campaign on March1, 2018 spoke on against extremism was not aimed at any religion but against a mindset that was misleading the youth to harm innocent people. He said, ‘’we need to take these things seriously…. They should never be allowed to distract us from the truth that faith should draw humanity together’’.

It needs a well- coordinated and systematic approach with a sensible balance of centralization and decentralization involving different stakeholders from the intelligence community, civil society, law-enforcement machinery, academia and religious institutions. Hence, they require an absolute social control and mobilization of their partisans.


Atnashev, Vadim (2013). ‘’Problems of Modern Radicalization And Extreme In India’’. DISCUSSION. St.- Petersburg, Russia.

Bakshi, Sandipan & Nagarjan, Aravindhan (2017). ‘’Mob lynching is not new. But the culture of impunity is.’’

Bajpai & Kaushik (2017). ‘’Thwarting Radicalization in India: Lacunae in Policy Initiative’’. doi: 10.4172/2375-4435.1000166

Dehlvi, R.Ghulam (2018). ‘’South India’s radicalized youths are joining ‘Jihad-e-Kashmir’ ‘’.

Halarnkar, Samar (2018) ‘’Distraction replaces development: Radicalising Hindus are diverted easiest by anti-Muslim bigotry’’.

Haqqani, Hussain (2006). ‘’India’s Islamist Groups’’. Current trends in Islamist Ideology. http://www.hudson.org/research/9803-india-s-islamist-groups.

Indian Ministry of Defence in Manila (2017) ‘’Terrorism, Omline radicalization security challenge. The Hindu.

Javaid, A. (2018) ‘’Home Ministry to causes of radicalization among youth’’. Hindustan Times.

Kaldor, Mary (1999). ‘’The Politics Of New War’’. New & Old wars - Organized Violence In Global Era. (Polity Press, Cambridge CB2 1UR, UK, 1997), ISBM 0-7456-2066-3

Kaldor, Mary (2003). ‘’free thinking of the world’’. Global civil society year book.

Laxman, Narayan (2015) ‘’ Intolerance fuels radicalisation’’.

Marshall, Paul (2004). ‘’Hinduism and Terror’’. Center for Religious freedom. South Asia.

Noor, Elina (2015). ‘’The Virtual Reality of Youth, Radicalization, and Terrorism’’. PANORMA – FROM THE DESERT TO WORLD CITIES, THE NEW TERRORISM. (Kanrad-Adenauer-Stifung, Singapore), R.No. – 201228783N

Nanjappa, V. (2018) ‘’The radicalization of South India: Why this part of the country is a ticking terror time bomb’’. https://www.oneindia.com/india/the-radicalisation-of-soth-india-why-this-part-of-the-country-is-a-ticking-terror-time-bomb-2659166.html

Observer Research Foundation (2015)

Pandya, Abhinav (2018). ‘’Understanding Radicalization in India’’. Policy Perspective Foundation.

Raman, B. (2011) ‘’Reasons for Radicalisation’’.

Rawat, G. Bipin, (2017). ‘’Radicalization is a worldwide phenomenon, we are taking it seriously’’. India Today.

Sahni, Ajay (2015). ‘’ Vulnerabilities and ressistence to Islamist radicalization in India’’.

-(2017). ‘’India taking ‘urgent steps’ to counter radicalization, will hold global meet: Govt’’. Deccan Chronicle

-(2017) ‘’India calls for global action to counter use of Internet for radicalisation’’. Financial Express, New York

- (2018) ‘’Fight against terrorism and radicalization not against any religion: Modi’’. The Hindu

17 views0 comments
  • Santushti Raj Thapar

Undignified role of Army in sham democracy:

Finally, one more time the puppet judiciary of Pakistan’s army found the way to send so called civilian Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in behind the bars being charged of corruption, although one knows the main reason is being critic of army. It is very difficult to say whether it will help him in forthcoming election which is held on 25th July or whether this will affect his credibility for winning the game of thrones. With a compiled judiciary that was abruptly clear that Nawaz Sharif would had been knocked out, and it happened. After 2016 there has been a friction in between Sharif and army so it was quite obvious to cease him to govern in the army dominated sham democracy.

*(Every institution in Pakistan including judiciary hands are gloved with army. Battles lives are very clearly drawn in this election, predicting the outcome is not easy that is really what brings the back to the importance of Punjab in this election. It is Punjab which is determine what going to happen in Pakistan in the fore coming elections because it is the outcome of which party gets the maximum no. of seats in Punjab which determine the architecture of the confederation obvious the govt. which will be formed. The movement about Pashtun and Karachi are also important but it is that’s actually a Punjab going to decide the future of election. What are the dynamics which has shaped it? For that we have to see predominant narratives of Nawaz Sharif v/s military establishment? That is the central issue in Pakistan today and Nawaz Sharif’s tenure since 2013. One principle stands out is the constant friction with the military. There are many reasons to begin with how Musharraf would to retain his trail. Second issue how its extremist parties JU, GLA, LET which are coming in their own way of client to improve relation with India.)*

In this century this would be fourth general election 2002, 2008, 2013 and now forthcoming election. But still nothing had changed. It was the preceding decades of 90s, between 1988 and 1997. There is continuity in govt but how significant or how much, it’s a question? something where one can discuss definitely not withstanding this continuity there is also be destruction in the tenure of chief executive or the Prime Minister, destruction following the 2008 election and the changes in the prime minister because of non-political factor. Similarly, during the current tenure of the govt. election 2013 you had similar destruction because of non-political factor what we can also call it religious factors and the friction with the army.

We have seen in the last decade and decade and a half at least superficial. They appear to be real strengthening come in institution like the elections, like the judiciary, like some extent the Media. Now again does they suggest real strengthening of this institution or does it suggest the Pakistan military more able to set in pieces in place in Pakistan in the way it could decade in the earlier, rely on this countervailing institution to keep the check on political parties. These are the obvious question which come up in the internal dynamics in Pakistan or the past in 4-5 years or the other factors.

Civilian PM is none less than the puppet of army in Pakistan. If we follow the history of Pakistan in detail that army had always played very larger life role in any democracy that military should that in case of Pakistan. Certain instances from history there have been major instances where civilian Prime Minister were powerful enough for the military to back off. One was Jinnah Sahab the founder, other is Zulfikar Bhutto, he was enough powerful, but there is a line not to cross the army. If you do so, you will be quickly cease to govern. Benazir Bhutto faced twice, Nawaz is facing now and has faced in the past also. In her second tenure Benazir was not allowed to swear in for two weeks even she had given the assurance to the army that she will keep herself away from the matter of security issues, America Pak relations, China Pak relation or the matter Afghanistan and also the nuclear issue. (Maroof Raza). Now the army this at once a professional army as well as a political army. It is an army that beliefs and says it openly, it is the ultimate defender of territory of Pakistan but also the ultimate defender of ideology of Pakistan. That’s a fact that there is a Pakistani army and it is an army that believe that it holds the country together. As world knows Pakistan army controls its every institution whether it is political, security, economic, international issues, judiciary, bureaucracy or any institution. That’s a country where military holding the country not a political class and of course the army plays the role to the constitution but it feels that it is not bound by the constitution, when it comes to the interest of Pakistan, it defines in it. It feels that its duty and obligation to it and today its possible that army will took over. It is army that Pakistan put down and army which destroyed the constitution.

Nasim Zehra book on Kargil to coup, before the coup Nawaz Sharif dismissed the Musharraf in 1999. He said that he was the constitutional PM by Pakistan, he was entitled to dismiss the army chief. In retaliation army replied, ‘’yes, it is constitutionally you do, but when it comes to the interest of Pakistan, we are not bound by the constitution. So even today army act that on security and on foreign policy. It is not the govt of Sharif that any other PM will prevail but it will only army who will prevail. That dynamic will not change. Every institution even an elected prime Minister are a puppet of army. Gen. Durrani says, it is a military holding Pakistan. The Pakistan army is a patriotic institution that it is a selfish institute. Pakistani civilian may know this reality, but army chief a constantly there is a projection, the army chief being, larger in life. So, you had Raheel Sharif with holding all over Pakistan and today the ‘Bajwa doctrine’. Army lays down the red lines and those red lines cannot be crossed without paying a cost. Pakistan never got independence, history prover it was always controlled by army. Army had always been a symbol of Pakistan, symbol of shame in Pakistan, defeat of Pakistan. Military commander and army leaders who architecture the defeat Pakistan. In 1965 it was Ayub khan. In 1971 Yahaya Khan, Bangladesh butcher Gen. Tikka Khan, 1999 Gen. Musharraf. Despite successive defeat because of army and army chief Pakistan always face red phased. (Sudhanshu Trivedi)

Army has the largest business interest, business empire even the greatest business belongs to army. They run biggest banks, airlines, logistic companies, cement factories and all is accepted. No one question it. No one raises issues in public discourse and public interest. And also, there is no binary. Pakistan vote for PM but they know its ultimate defender is army. But there is also a time when Since 2007, 2008 Pakistan’s having changing perception about the army. (in the eyes of Pak). Pakistani army underwent the significant and constant erosion in the public esteem in which it was held and this was primarily because of their inability to control the internal security situation in Pakistan and from 2006 and 2007 till about 2015. You had complete collapse of public morale in Pakistan where internal security was concerned constant stream of major terrorist attacks affecting all institution in Pakistan. Whether the military, judiciary, religious parties, civil society targets etc. the collapse of internal security loose the public trust. Although after 2015 improvement of security action was dramatic and directly co related the public esteem.

Poor Ideologies of the State

Pakistan is not a functional state. It is an ideological state. Hussain Haqqani in his book ‘Reimagining Pakistan’, he says, ‘’ the ideology of Pakistan is based on two things, first, it is based on ISLAM. Second, it is based on Anti Indianism.

Ideology of permanent enmity of India

Pakistan always believes in waging war against India. We have for decades our leading strategic idea, the idea of strong and stable Pakistan. This is India’s interest. There is no other country has an interest like this except ours. Do we want strong and stable adversary? (Ajay Sahni). Once a talk of Zulfikar with Arabs, Zulfikar had words if Pak breaks up who we are? Arabs will be considered as Arabs. but what about Pakistanis – will they remain Indians? No, it cannot be accepted.

Yes, there is structural basis through Pakistan and India committed mistakes when India overlooked the structural basis at the same time there are contingent factor, world is changed, world is not static while the Pakistan is not static. So, there are changing social, economic and political changes, even the army’s changing, but while focusing on only on these changing and making policy as we often do in India relating to Pakistan only on contingent factors and contingent situation overlooking the structural basis of Pakistan we fall into grave error and actually that has been the real problem over the last 70 years.

On the other hand, India looking for magical solution with Pakistan. Let us understand agreement with Pakistan, has any single be solved? Jihadis will take over the Pakistan one day and nuclear possession also. These things don’t happen overnight. The process of strategic transportation is a gradual process, it is a continuous and marginal alteration of equations of power and that is what we need to focus on, this is what Pakistan is, some of the countries understand this but unfortunately India does not. India should abandon all the trends of delicacy of language and should not be worried about calling Pakistan enemy and adversary state.

Ideology of ISLAM

Progressively role of Islamic ideology and sharia rule became not the practice but declare objective of every entity of Pakistan. There is no single entity in Pakistan. When it comes to India since we are immediate neighbor, we have to be cautious about what is happening in Pakistan all the time. Pakistan has amazingly exploited international environment. Apart from its engagement in terrorism and nuclear terrorism Pakistan has no relevant story in global connectivity. Radicalization has been a process and it is ongoing proceeding the birth of Pakistan. Roots of Islamization was the cause of it. Islamization is the principle tool to secure the ends of Pak but you can’t secure the country on the name of jihad. It is not a secular entity. Even those who were secular there, who were constitutional there they could not secure the voice of constitution. Jinnah, Ayub Khan, Bhutto were secular but they were guided by Islam and each of these instrumentalized Islam. Almost the Pakistani trajectory is negative this is what we have to understand. Terrorism is an internally and externally invested there. We have no. of ethnonationalist movement. Islamization and Talibanization is across the country.

In 1948, 77% population was Muslim, 23% others including 15% of Hindus. By 2017 we will have 96.4% Muslim including Hindus and Christians 1.6% each. There is no place of others. Pakistan is a state of tremendous of erosion of it structure of govt. high corruption and highly insecure. When assessing Pakistan, it is declining state in South Asia despite a nuclear state, despite an army. It is a nation without an essential sign of power come from the profile of evacuation. Form decades it has been a rich beggar. Kaplan – Pakistan is a country of dysfunctional culture. In 1999 assessment and study by U.N report by 2020 Pakistan will be collapsed, paralyzed, and anarchy followed by incremental accession to India.

Ugly face of pretended democracy:

After the apprehension of Nawaz Sharif supporters and many so-called liberals are demanding for civilian supremacy over the army. Which is totally dubious and suspicious demand? Apart this, major question is: will it raise the standard of living of the masses over the Pakistan? Did Bhutto and Sharif play a loyal and successful role in the same regard? One knows all earlier civil prime Ministers as well as the army have been highly corrupt. Apparently civilian and democratic govt. also can make no difference there. All they (like Bhutto and Sharif) ruled sham democracy. They have never been concerned to abolish or even reduce poverty, unemployment, malnutrition, lack of health care etc. They failed as well as, army failed putting even single effort for upliftment, then why make such hue and cry? So, the demand by some liberals or secular for supremacy of civilian rule over the army is reluctant in Pakistan since both the politician and generals in Pakistan are corrupt, the poor people of Pakistan will remain poor.

‘’The common people don’t matter in Pakistan, only the leaders do. And, the leaders are the one who create a situation which leads people there to misfortune.’’ Dr. Ajay Sahni

I remember a line wrote by Urdu poet Jaun Elia about creation of Pakistan

‘’Ye sab Aligarh ke laund ki shararat hai’’.

Demanding of Pakistan was not an engineered plan by its founders. It was an enmity against Non-Muslim and hunger for a particular throne by some gullible; who create this fake and artificial country. Despite being secular their messiah disguised themselves rigid Muslim and paint the public sentiments with their own selfish interest. They ruled sham democracy. Partially Jaun Elia was right. Britishers bogus two nation theory also fuels this directionless ideology of Pakistani defenders.

Hence enduring character of Pakistan is consistently downward on every variable can be defined whether economic, political, and security. Pakistan is a country without options. They have substandard almost non-existing education system, there is not even half a dozen institution of higher education. There is obvious arbitrary, a weakening or collapsing education system across the country. Many govt. school exists on papers only. School buildings, mostly in rural areas, have been converted to drawing rooms for local landowners or cattle sheds while the children are forced to study under trees or out in open.

Compounding the nations’s state of poor health, for example, is the toll taken by pneumonia killing approximately 92000 annually. According to UNICEF, despite significant improvements over the past two decades, Pakistan ranks towards the bottom among other countries when it comes to infant and neonatal mortality. The population of Pakistan is increasing at a rate of 3.2%. presently, Pakistan has to feed more the 200 million people and if these rate remains the same, then it will be almost double by the year, 2025 and hence, the consumption of the underground water will also add to the problem. Roads pf this country is of devastated condition. Roads are constructed and maintained just before the monsoon so that contractors have good alibi to blame the nature and escape accountability as they use very substandard material for this job. (municipal corporation, Krishan kumar). Every one’s character is painted with dark colors of corruption over there. Pakistan is on the course of suicide. It is also on the of bankruptcy. Its this situation is due to a failure of governance, not of the nationhood and also absence of civil military.


Since we focus on contingent factors things will change on wishful thinking and hopes than we fall into gravious error and hence there is no consistency, there is yo yo situation, there is a swing one end to the other, dialogue, no dialogue since we have been focusing on civic military relations one has to look at the structural basis of Pakistan too while not ignoring the contingent factors also. We fluctuate between more cooperation and less cooperation, between less talk and more terror what actually follows illusion. India should not overlook the fundamentalism. We should approach the whole issue of Pakistan, we must be enduring the strength and weaknesses of Pakistan. Discover how we underestimate those strength and also those weaknesses to secure our aims Pakistan. Pendulum strategy it should be end dialogue means, full structural dialogue not whistling. We should not talk we have done this many time in past. We should not make same mistakes repeatedly. We should take strategic decision with strong will. Modi and Sharif final gesture that two PM are meeting. Army takes it as two kings are meeting it has nothing with Pakistan.

So, we look contingent factors? Why we don’t look above the mentioned structural basis factors. It’s quite clear Pakistan is an ideological state rather functional. Despite all we think like ‘it might change one day’. ‘let’s try again, we are seen some changes – it’s a foolish thing by Indian Govt.’ Once the election over then we can decide how much pressure we can put and leave it isolated. Try to isolated and mount as much as pressure as we can, but it should remember that how much pressure we should put on Pakistan, we have to look what the international community do with it?

  • Santushti Raj Thapar

6 views0 comments